शुक्रवार, 7 नवंबर 2014

Step-by-Step Installation Guide of ubuntu

Hello Readers Today i am going to show you how to install a Ubuntu. So.So before we start the installation process until you've made sure there is enough space for Ubuntu on your hard disk and you have backed up all your data. With those preparations complete, you’re ready to install Ubuntu.

Stage 1: Prepare the Windows Partition for Resizing

If you’re installing Ubuntu on a computer that already contains Windows, it’s a good idea to perform
three additional steps before actually installing Ubuntu. These steps will ensure that Ubuntu will be able
to re-size the Windows partition successfully.
If your computer doesn't contain Windows, or if you’re installing Ubuntu onto a second hard disk,
you can skip straight to step 2.
The following are the steps for preparing the Windows partition for re-sizing:

  1. Scan the disk for errors.
  2. Defragment the hard disk.
  3. Ensure that Windows is shut down correctly.
         To scan the disk, open My Computer (or Computer if you’re running Windows Vista or 7), right-click
your Windows drive (usually C:\) and select Properties. In the window that appears, click the Tools tab
and then click the Check Now button under the Error Checking heading. Ensure that there’s a check
alongside Automatically Fix File System Errors, and click the Start button. You will then be prompted to
schedule the disk check the next time your computer restarts. Select to do so and reboot your computer,
so the disk check can take place.


                                   When the computer has rebooted, it’s time to defragment your disk. Windows can be untidy with how it stores data on the disk. Over time files get broken into pieces and scattered all over your Windows partition. Defragmenting the partition will not only make Windows run more quickly, but will also consolidate your files at the beginning of the partition, enabling you to shrink it further and create a
larger partition for Ubuntu in the freed space. Repeat the previous steps to view the Tools tab of the
drive’s Properties dialog box, and click the Defragment Now button. Then work through the
defragmentation program’s options in order to defragment the Windows disk (shown in Figure 1);
usually this involves simply clicking the Defragment button (labeled Defragment Now under Windows
Vista or Defragment Disk under Windows 7).

                                        After that has completed—it may take several hours if your computer has not been defragmented before—shut down the computer as usual and proceed to stage 2 of the installation process.It’s vital that the computer shuts itself down properly. If the computer doesn’t cleanly shut
down, Ubuntu’s installation program might stop with an error message about not being able to resize
the partition.



INSTALLING UBUNTU INSIDE WINDOWS


system. In other words, there is no need to repartition your hard disk. Aside from this, there is no major
difference between a partitioned installation and a Wubi installation.
Wubi works by creating a loopback file system—that is, it creates a single large file within the Windows
file system, and that file is then used as the Ubuntu file system.
Wubi is a nice way to try out Ubuntu on a more permanent basis than using the live distro mode. The
biggest issue is that Wubi requires at least 256MB of memory and 5GB of hard disk space, although this
shouldn’t present any problems for relatively modern computers. However, users have reported
performance degradation compared to a dedicated Ubuntu installation in its own partition, and you’ll also
find that Ubuntu’s useful Hibernate power-saving mode (what Windows refers to as Suspend to Disk)
isn’t supported.
Unfortunately, for technical reasons Wubi isn’t included on the DVD release of Ubuntu, as supplied on Side
A of the DVD-ROM disc that comes with this book. To use it, you’ll need to burn your own CD-R/RW disc
from the installation ISO image of Ubuntu provided on Side B of the disc. To learn how to do this, follow the
instructions in Appendix D.
To use Wubi, insert the CD while Windows is up and running. In the dialog box that appears, click the
Install Inside Windows button. If the dialog box doesn’t appear, navigate to the contents of the CD and
double-click wubi.exe. In the next dialog box, you are presented with a series of drop-down lists. Using
these, you can choose which drive to create the Ubuntu file system on, if you have more than one hard
disk or partition, and you can choose the size of the loopback file system you want to create. In most
cases, the default options are fine. You will need to enter a username and password in the boxes provided.
These will form your Ubuntu login details. When you’re finished, click the Next button.
Wubi will then create the loopback file system. When it has finished, you’ll be invited to reboot your
computer. After the computer is up and running again, you’ll be presented with a boot menu from which
you can choose either Windows or Ubuntu. Choosing Ubuntu will then start the installation routine, which
will complete automatically. Following this, you’ll be prompted to reboot. From then on, selecting the
Ubuntu option from the boot menu will start Ubuntu. To start Windows, simply choose the Windows option
from the menu.
To remove the Ubuntu file system from your Windows hard disk, navigate to C:\ubuntu from within
Windows and double-click Uninstall-Ubuntu.exe. Don’t be tempted to just delete the Ubuntu folder,
because doing so will not remove the boot menu component.

Step 2: Boot from the DVD-ROM

With your computer booted up, insert the Ubuntu disc into the DVD-ROM drive, with Side A topmost.
Close the tray and reboot your computer. The disc might automatically run under Windows, opening a
menu where you can click to find out more about Ubuntu, but you can ignore this.
Because you need to boot from the DVD-ROM disc in order to run the Ubuntu installer, the first step
is to make sure your computer’s BIOS is set correctly.
Many modern computers let you press a particular key during the initial boot phase of your
computer, during the memory testing and drive identification period, to make a boot menu appear.
Often this is F8, Delete, or Esc, but you should keep an eye on the boot messages to identify the correct
key. On the boot menu, you can choose to boot from the CD or DVD drive from the list.

If you do not have an option to boot from the CD/DVD drive, you’ll need to enter the BIOS setup
program and change the boot priority of your computer. To do this, press the Delete key just after the
computer is first activated. Again, some computers use another key or key combination, and your boot
screen should indicate which key to press.
When the BIOS menu appears, look for a menu option such as Boot and select it (you can usually
navigate around the screen of the BIOS menu using the cursor keys, and select options by pressing
Enter). On the new menu, look for a separate entry such as Boot Device Priority or perhaps Boot
Sequence. Make sure that the entry for the CD/DVD-ROM is at the top of the list. Arrange the list so that
CD/ DVD-ROM is followed by the floppy drive and then your main hard disk. You can usually press the
F1 key for help on how the menu selection system works.
After you’ve made the changes, be sure to select the Save and Exit option. Your PC will then reset
and boot from the Ubuntu DVD-ROM, and you’ll be greeted by the Ubuntu DVD boot menu.

Note: After Ubuntu has been installed on your computer, you might choose to repeat this step and rearrange the boot order once more to make the hard disk appear at the top of the list. Then your computer won’t waste time checking the DVD-ROM drive for a boot disc every time it starts.

Step 3: Try or Install

When the DVD-ROM boots, for a few seconds you’ll see a purple background with two small icons—a
keyboard and an accessibility symbol—at the bottom of the screen, hinting that accessibility features
such as a screen reader can be reached by pressing any key on the keyboard. Most people can just leave
the boot sequence to continue.
You will then be entertained by a progress indicator for a minute or so, depending on the speed of
your machine, after which the installer window will appear (Figure 2).

The Welcome screen of the installer: choose to test the system out, or install it.

English is the default language for the installer, but a selection list on the left of the window offers
the choice of more than 60 other languages, reminding us what an amazingly international project
Ubuntu is.

The two main options offered by the Welcome window are as follows:

Try Ubuntu 10.04: This option lets you run Ubuntu “live” from the DVD-ROM disc, so you can try
out its features, albeit in a slightly limited state (see the “Running in Live Distro Mode” sidebar). If
you’ve never seen Ubuntu up and running, choose this option and play around. You can always
click the install icon on the Desktop when you’re ready to take the plunge.
Install Ubuntu 10.04: This will start Ubuntu’s installation routine. Choose this if you want to get
straight on with installing Ubuntu on your PC now.
Text links on this window also offer you the opportunity to read the release notes for Ubuntu 10.04
and to update the installer itself. It’s not essential to do either of these.


Note:Pressing a key when the purple background first appears on booting the DVD-ROM will bring up an
alternative boot menu. This allows you to activate accessibility features, test your computer’s memory, or start a text-mode installer, in case the standard graphical installer has problems displaying on your hardware. Chances are you won’t need any of these options.

Step 4: Select Your Location and Time Zone

Ubuntu will next ask you to choose your time zone. If your PC is already connected to the Internet,
Ubuntu may already have detected your location correctly. You can select your time zone manually by
clicking your location on the world map that’s displayed or by selecting the nearest city from the dropdown
lists at the base of the page.
When you click the map, you’ll see that the time zone is highlighted in green, and you can click
near your location within this band. You’ll also see a live clock showing the time in that location. See
Figure 3 for an example.


The city you choose doesn’t matter a great deal—the purpose of this step is to ensure that Ubuntu
selects the correct time zone for your location, which it does by looking up the city in a database of
time zones.
After you’ve made your selection, click the Forward button.

Step 5: Confirm Your Keyboard Layout

Next you’ll be asked to confirm the keyboard layout you’ll be using, as shown in Figure 4. This should
correspond to your language and locale settings, and will be automatically selected, so you can just click
the Forward button. If you’re unsure whether Ubuntu has guessed the correct keyboard layout, you can
click the test text field and type in some characters before continuing. You can also manually set your
preferred keyboard layout by clicking the Choose Your Own radio button and selecting as appropriate
from the country and layout lists.

Note: Keyboard layouts can differ from country to country even if they speak the same language. This is to allow for local necessities. The UK keyboard layout has the pound sterling symbol (£) above the number 3, for example, and swaps around the locations of a handful of other symbols, too.


Step 6: Repartition Your Hard Disk

Partitioning the disk is one of the most important steps during installation, but, unfortunately, it’s one
that can be couched in difficult terminology. Partitioning is the process of dividing up a hard disk into
sections so that different operating systems or one operating system and some data can exist on the
same computer and convince the computer that more than one disk exists. Though it’s a complex
subject, Ubuntu does its best to make partitioning easy.

The Ubuntu installation routine offers several options for disk partitioning:

  • Resize the existing partition on the hard disk and install Ubuntu alongside it in the newly created free space. (This option is not offered if the disk has no existing partitions.)
  • Use the entire disk, whether it already has some contents or not (that is, if the computer or hard disk is new or if you want to overwrite your Windows installation).
  • Use the largest free space that might already exist on the hard disk, for example if you've already manually repartitioned the disk. (This option is not offered if the disk has no existing partitions.)
  • Manually edit the partition table—that is, resize/delete any existing partitions by hand and create the Ubuntu partitions. This is suitable only for expert users.
          Most people who are installing Ubuntu on a computer that already has Windows on it will want to
re-size the main partition, as described next.
           If you’re installing Ubuntu on a computer that has no operating system installed or one that you would like to completely erase from the computer, follow the instructions under the upcoming “Use Entire Disk” section. However, be aware that this will completely wipe any data from that disk.

Resize the Main Partition

This is the default partitioning option if your computer already has Windows installed on it. Ubuntu will detect the main Windows partition and suggest the amount of resizing.

By default, Ubuntu attempts to grab as much space for itself as possible, without shrinking the
existing partition too much. In our example in Figure 5, the installation program has decided to
split the disk roughly 50/50, giving both operating systems a decent amount of space. This is shown in
the bar display: the right part of the bar represents Windows, and the left part represents the new
Ubuntu partition.
Ubuntu’s default choice is normally fine, but you can also click and drag the grab bar in the middle
of the partitioning display bar to increase or decrease the sizes of the Windows and Ubuntu partitions.
You may want to give Windows a little more space if you plan to divide your time between Windows and
Ubuntu. Bear in mind that, while Ubuntu can read files on the Windows partition, Windows refuses to
do vice versa, so if you want to access your files locally from both operating systems, those files should
be stored in the Windows (NTFS or FAT) partition.
The Ubuntu installer is intelligent enough not to let you set an impossible value for shrinking the
existing partition. The Ubuntu installer is also clever enough to know that Windows needs some free
space within its partition to operate effectively—to write temporary and system files and user-created
files such as Word documents, for example. So you shouldn't be able to make changes that are too
extreme. On a test system, we couldn't set a size for the existing partition lower than 10 percent of the
entire disk, because the existing data on the partition occupied about 10 percent of the space. You can
override this protection by manually partitioning, as described in the “Manually Edit the Partition Table”
section of this chapter. Similarly, the installer shouldn't let you create an inadequate amount of free
space for Ubuntu when dragging the slider to the right.
The next time you start Windows, having re-sized your Windows partition, it’s very likely that
Microsoft’s disk checking program will run. This is quite normal. Typically it will complete without
finding any errors.


After you've made your selection, click the Forward button. After a warning message asks whether
you really want to take this irreversible step, the installer will re-size the partition. This might take a
few moments.

    Use Entire Disk

    If the hard disk is empty, or if you’ve decided to eradicate Windows and use only Ubuntu on your
    computer, you can choose the “Erase and use the entire disk” option, as shown in Figure 6.
    If the disk does have contents, this option will remove them and then use the entire disk to install
    Ubuntu.


    Use the Largest Continuous Free Space

    If you’ve already repartitioned your hard disk by using a third-party utility, or if you deliberately created
    a smaller Windows partition in order to leave free space for another operating system, you can select the
    “Use the largest continuous free space” option (note that this option won’t appear unless there is free
    space on the hard disk). Then the Ubuntu installation program will use the largest amount of free space
    for the Ubuntu partitions. This is an important point: if you have more than one area of free space, the
    largest will be used.
    If you do have more than one amount of free space, the Ubuntu installation routine is unable to
    automatically use any smaller amounts of free space. If you want this to be the case, the only option is to
    manually partition, as described in the section “Manually Edit the Partition Table.” However, only
    advanced users will need to do this.
    After you’ve made your choice, click the Forward button and proceed to the next stage in this guide.

    Use a Second Hard Disk

    If your computer has more than one hard disk—a new hard disk you’ve added for Ubuntu,  or a second hard disk already installed in your computer—you should select it under the Use the Entire Disk option. The way Ubuntu identifies your hard disks might seem a little complicated at first, but is actually straightforward.
    If your computer is relatively new, chances are it has a SATA-based hard disk. If so, the first hard disk will be identified as sda, the second as sdb, the third as sdc. All that changes in each case is the last letter: a, b, c, and so on.

    If your computer uses IDE-based hard disks, the drives will also be identified as sda, sdb, and so on.
    The primary master drive in the system is identified as hda, the primary slave as hdb, the secondary
    master as hdc, and so on. The drive will also be identified by make and model, which may help you
    identify it.
    Assuming the second IDE hard disk is installed as a slave on the primary channel, as is the standard
    configuration for an additional hard disk, it will be identified as hdb, so make that selection. If the disk is
    installed as the slave on the secondary channel (that is, the same channel as the DVD-ROM drive), it will
    be identified as hdd.
    After you’ve selected the disk, click the Forward button.

    Manually Edit the Partition Table

    If, for any reason, you find that Ubuntu’s default partitioning choices are not for you, you can opt to manually edit the partition table. For example, you may want to separate the operating system installation from your /home folder. This separation makes doing a fresh installation of Ubuntu or another Linux easy, because the data is left untouched. There are essentially two stages to work through if you choose this option:


    • You’re given the chance to repartition the disk manually. You can resize or delete any existing partitions and create the partitions Ubuntu needs.
    • While creating/editing the partitions, you’ll be asked to assign mount points. You’ll be prompted to tell Ubuntu which of the partitions on the disk it should use for the root file system (that is, the main partition for Ubuntu’s use) and which should be used for the swap partition.


    Manually partitioning offers ultimate flexibility but requires a relatively high level of knowledge of how Ubuntu works. Therefore, we recommend that only experts undertake this step, unless you have no other choice because the default Ubuntu partitioning choices do not offer what you need or do not work properly for you.
    In the following steps, we explain how to resize an existing partition, create the new partitions that Ubuntu needs, and assign mount points so that Ubuntu is able to use them.

    Prepare Partitions

    When the disk partitioning choices appear, click the “Specify partitions manually (advanced)” radio button and click Forward. The Prepare Partitions window will appear, as shown in Figure 7. This window lists the hard disks detected by Ubuntu and their corresponding partitions. Each item has the following properties:


    •  Device: This is the logical representation of the hardware device in Ubuntu. See the previous section for an explanation of the drive identification, but note that here the drive references are preceded with /dev. You can ignore this. The numbers at the end refer to the order of partitions. For example, sda1 refers to the first partition of the first hard disk, and sda2 refers to the second partition of the first hard disk.
    • Type: This specifies the file system type of the partition. For example, NTFS and VFAT are Windows file systems, ext4 indicates the Ubuntu partition, and swap indicates a swap file partition.
    • Mount Point: A mount point is a location within Ubuntu’s file system where Ubuntu will “see” a partition. At least one partition needs to be mounted as root.
    •  Format?: This indicates whether the partition will be formatted during installation. Formatting will destroy any data on a partition, so ensure that you have backups of important data and that you really do want to format.
    • Size: This determines the disk space of the partition, in megabytes. Note that the strict definition of the word megabyte is used, meaning 1,000,000 bytes, rather than the more widely used 1,024,000 bytes (1,024KB). To confuse matters, the 1,024KB definition is used in the rest of the installation program. (From its next release, Ubuntu is due to switch entirely to the SI standard, that is, 1MB (megabyte) = 1,000 KB).
    •  Used: This determines how much disk space has been consumed, in megabytes.

                  At the bottom of the window are buttons to manipulate the hard disk as a whole or each individual partition. For the hard disk, you can opt to create a new partition table. This effectively returns the disk to as-new status, with no partition information, so creating a new partition table is tantamount to erasing the whole hard disk. Be sure you know what you’re doing! For unallocated free space, you have an option to add a new partition. For an existing partition, you have an option to change its properties (this option lets you resize the disk and assign a mount point) or delete the partition to accumulate free disk space. You also have a revert option to undo all hard disk changes, which applies to all desired changes except resizing a partition, because resizing is carried out as soon as you select to do so, unlike the other changes, which are carried out after working through all the installation stages.


    So you want to resize the main NTFS (Windows) partition. Search for that partition in the partition type list; it will be shown as ntfs.

    Determine Windows Partition Size

    After you have found the NTFS partition, you should determine how much space should be retained in your Windows partition so that Windows will still function properly while providing a sufficient amount of space for Ubuntu. The bare minimum disk space required for a Windows partition varies between 2GB for Windows XP and 16GB for Windows 7, though these minimums will give you very little space for documents or other data.
    You should free up as much space as possible for Ubuntu. But if disk space is a concern, you will need to determine the minimum of disk space that should be put aside for the main and swap partitions of Ubuntu.

    The main partition will contain the Ubuntu operating system itself. This partition should have at the very least 3GB of disk space (2GB for the base installation, and the rest for new applications, software upgrades, and your data).
    The swap partition is similar to the swap file under Windows (sometimes referred to as virtual memory or the paging file), except that it resides on its own partition. The traditional purpose of a swap partition is to act as additional memory should the main memory become full. Accessing the hard disk takes longer than accessing the RAM, so using the swap partition for this purpose is a last resort. The swap file is also used by Linux for storing “anonymous pages,” that is, data that exists in memory only and not on disk. Without swap, there would be nowhere for anonymous pages to go when Linux wants to use the memory space they’re taking up. Additionally, the swap file is used to store the contents of the physical memory when the computer enters Hibernate (Suspend to Disk) power-saving mode.

    The ideal size for the swap partition is a subject of endless debate. Recommendations usually depend on the size of your physical RAM. If you want to use the Hibernate feature on your computer, your swap partition size must be at least equal to the size of the physical RAM.


    After you have determined the size of your main and swap partitions, total their sizes. This is how much free space you need to allocate for Ubuntu.

    Edit Partition Properties

    In the Prepare Partitions window, select the NTFS partition and click Change to edit its properties. In the Edit Partition dialog box, you can edit three partition properties:


    • New Partition Size in Megabytes: This allows you to adjust the size of the selected partition. If you reduce the size of the selected partition, the remaining space will be allocated for free space. For example, if you have an NTFS partition with a size of 104,847MB and you would like to allocate 8,192MB for Ubuntu, you would need to reduce the size of the NTFS partition to 96,655MB. Adjust the size of the NTFS partition as you determined in the previous step.
    • Use As: This either changes or displays the file system of the selected partition. The current file system is NTFS, because you are editing a Windows partition, so select ntfs from the list if it isn’t already displayed. Be careful not to select any of the other entries from the list, because this could damage your Windows setup irreversibly.
    •  Mount Point: Ubuntu makes non-Linux file systems (such as Windows) available by mounting them. You can either select one of the default suggestions (on our test system, these were /dos and /windows) or type your own path (but only if you know what you’re doing).


    After you’re satisfied with your choices, click the OK button. At this point, you are prompted to confirm that your desired changes will be made to the disk. It’s a good idea to read through the summary carefully, because after you click Continue, there’s no going back. Any data on the disk will be lost. Click Continue when you’re ready to start the resizing process. After the process is finished, you will have free space to allocate for Ubuntu.
    If you see an error message while trying to resize the partition, it’s likely that Windows was not shut down correctly. To fix this situation, exit the Ubuntu installer, reboot Windows, and opt to check the disk. Then reboot so the check can take place. After that, reboot again, ensuring that Windows is properly shut down. Then you can return to the Ubuntu installer.

    Create Main and Swap Partitions

    The next step is to create partitions with the free space. Select the new free space you have created and click the Add... button. The Create Partition dialog box will appear, as shown in Figure 9. This dialog box has five options:


    • Type for the New Partition: This option allows you to set the partition as primary or logical. Unless the hard disk has more than one operating system installed, you should select the Primary option. With primary partitions, you can divide your hard disk up to only four partitions. If you need more than four partitions, or if there are already three partitions on the disk, select the Logical option, and create the further partitions you need within the new logical partition.
    • New Partition Size in Megabytes: This option sets the number of megabytes that will be allocated to the new partition. The default value takes all of the free space, but since you are going to make both a main partition and a swap partition, you should adjust the size accordingly.
    • Location for the New Partition: This option specifies whether the new partition will be created on the beginning or end area of the free space. It’s recommended that you use the beginning. This way, the free space can be seen easily, because it always appears just below all of the partitions.
    • Use As: This option specifies the file system of the new partition. The default option of Ext4 Journaling File System is fine when you are creating the main partition.
    • Mount Point: The mount point is a directory that will act as a location where you can make a disk accessible. The main partition you create for Ubuntu must be mounted as root. This is always represented as a single forward slash (/).


    To create the main partition, where the operating system and data will all be stored, reduce the new partition size to leave enough space for swap, choose Ext4 as the format from the Use As drop-down menu, and then set the Mount Point to the forward slash (/) to specify that this partition is the main partition or root file system. Your dialog box should look similar to the one shown in Figure 9. Click the OK button to continue.

    Next we’ll create the swap partition. If you calculated the main partition size correctly, you can just accept the remaining space for use as swap. Change the Use As option to Swap Area. Leave the rest of the options untouched (note that the swap partition doesn't need a mount point). For example, if the size of the physical RAM is 1GB, the partition size for the swap partition should be set to 1,024MB, as shown in Figure 10. Click OK to continue.
    You should now have partitions ready to go, as shown in Figure 11. Note that you may also have an NTFS partition visible if you’re dual-booting with Windows. Click Forward to continue.


    With your partitions configured, you’re ready to move on.

    Step 7: Set Up a User

    Next you’ll be prompted to say who you are and choose the name you want to use to log in. In answer to the question What Is Your Name? you can enter the name by which you’ll be formally identified on the system to anyone who uses it. The standard practice is to use your first and last names, separated by a space.
    Next, you’ll be asked for the name you want to use to log in. This username needs to be unique; two users on the same computer cannot have the same username. Also, it must follow these rules:


    • The username should be one word without any spaces in it.
    • You can choose any username consisting of uppercase and lowercase letters and numbers, but not symbols or punctuation.
    • The username cannot begin with an uppercase letter, although you can use uppercase in the rest of the name.


    The simplest procedure for choosing a username is to use your own first name, typed entirely in lowercase letters. For example, in Figure 12, we've set the full name to Trevor Parsons and the login name to Trevor. Helpfully, Ubuntu will add the first part of the full name to the username space automatically.

    You should enter an ordinary name, a login name, a password, and, if you want, a name togive your computer.

    Step 8: Import Documents and Settings

               The next step is to migrate accounts by importing documents and settings of existing user accounts from your Windows partition to Ubuntu. (You won’t be prompted to do this if you’re installing Ubuntu on a fresh hard disk or have chosen to overwrite your Windows partition.) Just select the items you would like to import to your account, as shown in Figure 13. Then click the Forward button to continue.

              This is certainly a handy feature to be offered by the installer, but think twice about whether to use it. If you have a large amount of data, such as music and video, stored on your Windows partition, there is little point in using the migration tool to copy it over onto your new Ubuntu partition. You would be merely duplicating large amounts of data on the same disk, which makes little sense given that your Windows partition will in any case be accessible from your new Ubuntu system.

    Select the items you would like to migrate from Windows to your account.

    Step 9: Confirm Installation Choices

    At this point, you’ll see the Ready to Install window, which lists the choices you’ve made, as shown in Figure 14. It’s a good idea to check to make sure everything is correct before clicking the Install button.
         When you’re ready to install Ubuntu, click the Install button. This will start the installation procedure. The new partitions you created will be formatted, and the Ubuntu files will be copied.

    Confirm the installation choices, and click the Install button to format the new partitions andcopy the Ubuntu files.

    If you click the Advanced button (which isn't required), you will be prompted to customize the boot loader and set a network proxy if you have one. For the boot loader settings, you have the option not to write the boot loader to the disk. The option makes sense if you already have an existing boot loader, perhaps from another Linux installation, and you would prefer to use it as the primary boot loader for all the operating systems installed on your computer.

    Step 10: Perform Installation

    Now all you have to do is wait! The Ubuntu installation routine will copy the necessary files and install Ubuntu, as shown in Figure 15. It won’t require any further input from you, unless something goes wrong. For example, if you've created partitions that are too small in the previous section, this is the point at which you’ll be told. If you do encounter an error, the installation program will quit, and you will need to start it again by clicking the icon on the Desktop, this time altering your choices accordingly. Installation should take no more than 30 minutes. It completed in half that time on most of our test systems.

    While the Ubuntu files are copied, you can read about its nifty features and applications.

    Step 11: Reboot and Enjoy Ubuntu!

    When installation has finished, a dialog box will appear telling you to restart the computer (see Figure 16). After you click the Restart Now button, the DVD will be ejected automatically. It’s important that you remove it so that you don’t accidentally boot Ubuntu’s installer again when the machine restarts. In fact, Ubuntu will prompt you to remove the disk and press Enter to confirm the removal.

                Following this, the system will restart. If you've installed Ubuntu on a computer that contains Windows, you’ll first see the Grub boot menu. This offers a number of choices, including the chance to boot Ubuntu into recovery mode, which can help fix your computer (I will discussed in Next Tutorial). You can
    also choose to boot into Windows. You can switch between the menu choices by using the arrow keys; press Enter to make your selection.

    You’re almost ready to get started with Ubuntu.

             You can also run Memtest86 to test your system’s memory. However, most users can simply press
    Enter when the menu appears, which will select the topmost entry, thereby booting Ubuntu in normal mode. Alternatively, after 10 seconds, the default choice will be automatically selected. If you installed Ubuntu onto a computer or hard disk without any other OS, the system will start up directly, without displaying a boot menu (although this can be accessed if desired by holding down Shift during start-up).
              After a few seconds have passed while Ubuntu loads, you’ll see the Ubuntu login screen, as shown
    in Figure 17 (unless you set up Ubuntu to log you in automatically)

    When the computer has rebooted after installation, the standard Ubuntu login screenwill appear.

    Conclusion

    By following the steps outlined in this Tutorial, you should now have Ubuntu installed on your computer. We've tried to provide you with enough information to get around certain problems, and explain each step of the installation.
    Alas, it’s still possible that you encountered hurdles that weren't addressed here. In the next Tutorial, you’ll find solutions to common problems associated with Ubuntu installation.If you have any problem then drop a comment.Thank you.

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